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A metal bar of length L and area of cross-section A is clamped between two rigid supports. For the material of the rod, its Young’s modulus is Y and coefficient of linear expansion is α. If the temperature of the rod is increased by t°C, the force exerted by the rod on the supports is

(a) Y AL t                          (b) Y A αt

(c) YL αtA                          (d) Y α AL t