Necessity for Hydrogenation • Hydrogenated fat is basically a substitute to butter fats. • High costs of butter fat and its poor storage stability were detrimental factors that led to the investigation of alternative sources of hard fats. • This investigation led to the invention of catalyzed H2 addition across unsaturated sites of oils and fats and was quickly commercialized. • Conversion of liquid oils to solid and semi-solid fats having wide spectrum of physical & chemical characteristics of products were thus obtained.
What is Hydrogenation? • Hydrogenation is a process that reduces unsaturated fatty acid content of triglycerides by attaching hydrogen atoms at the point of unsaturation in the presence of catalyst, usually Nickel. • Hydrogenation accomplishes two things-: • 1.It increases the melting point of the oil or fat. • 2.Resistance to oxidation and flavor deterioration. • Hydrogenation process depends on several parameters: • Pressure, Temperature, Type of catalyst, Speed of agitation etc.
MECHANISM • The mechanism involved in fat hydrogenation is believed to be the reaction between unsaturated liquid oil and atomic hydrogen adsorbed on a metal catalyst. • It is similar to hydrogenation of alkenes.