Assertion(A): The increase in internal energy \((\Delta E )\) for the vapourization of one mole of water at 1 atm and 373 K is zero.
Reason(R): For all isothermal processes, \(\Delta E = 0 \).

1. Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A.
2. Both A and R are true but R is not the correct explanation of A.
3. A is true and R is false.
4. A and R both are false.

Subtopic:  Enthalpy & Internal energy |
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Assertion(A): \(\Delta H\) and \(\Delta E\) are almost the same for the reaction, \(N_{2(g)} + O_{2(g)} \rightleftharpoons 2NO_(g)\) 
Reason(R): All reactants and products are gases.

1. Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A.
2. Both A and R are true but R is not the correct explanation of A.
3. A is true and R is false.
4. A and R both are false.
Subtopic:  Enthalpy & Internal energy |
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Assertion(A): Molar entropy of vaporization of water is different from ethanol.
Reason(R): Water is more polar than ethanol.

1. Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A.
2. Both A and R are true but R is not the correct explanation of A.
3. A is true and R is false.
4. A and R both are false.
Subtopic:  Thermochemistry |
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Assertion(A): Decrease in free energy causes a spontaneous reaction.
Reason(R): Spontaneous reactions are invariably exothermic reactions.

1. Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A.
2. Both A and R are true but R is not the correct explanation of A.
3. A is true and R is false.
4. A and R both are false.
Subtopic:  Spontaneity & Entropy |
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Assertion(A): Thermodynamic properties are macroscopic in nature.
Reason(R): When a gas expands into a vacuum, the work done by it is zero. 

1. Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A.
2. Both A and R are true but R is not the correct explanation of A.
3. A is true and R is false.
4. A and R both are false.
Subtopic:  Thermodynamics' Properties and process | First Law of Thermodynamics |
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Assertion(A): For an isothermal physical process, change in internal energy is equal to zero.
Reason(R): The internal energy is directly proportional to temperature for physical processes.
1. Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A.
2. Both A and R are true but R is not the correct explanation of A.
3. A is true and R is false.
4. A and R both are false.
Subtopic:  Enthalpy & Internal energy |
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Assertion (A):  Absolute values of the internal energy of substances cannot be determined.
Reason (R): It is impossible to determine the exact values of constituent energies of the substances.
 
1. Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).
2. Both (A) and (R) are true but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).
3. (A) is true but (R) is false.
4. Both (A) and (R) are false.
Subtopic:  Enthalpy & Internal energy |
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Assertion(A): Mass and volume are extensive properties.
Reason(R): Mass/volume is also an extensive parameter.

1. Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A.
2. Both A and R are true but R is not the correct explanation of A.
3. A is true and R is false.
4. A and R both are false.
Subtopic:  Thermodynamics' Properties and process |
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Assertion(A): During an adiabatic process, heat energy is not exchanged between the system and its surroundings.
Reason(R): The temperature of a gas increases when it undergoes an adiabatic expansion.

1. Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A.
2. Both A and R are true but R is not the correct explanation of A.
3. A is true and R is false.
4. A and R both are false.
Subtopic:  Thermodynamics' Properties and process |
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Assertion(A): Heat energy is completely transformed into work during the isothermal expansion of a gas.
Reason(R): During an isothermal process, the changes in the internal energy of a gas due to a decrease in pressure are nullified by the changes due to an increase in volume.

1. Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A.
2. Both A and R are true but R is not the correct explanation of A.
3. A is true and R is false.
4. A and R both are false.
Subtopic:  First Law of Thermodynamics | Enthalpy & Internal energy |
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