Assertion(A): For an isothermal physical process, change in internal energy is equal to zero.
Reason(R): The internal energy is directly proportional to temperature for physical processes.
1. Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A.
2. Both A and R are true but R is not the correct explanation of A.
3. A is true and R is false.
4. A and R both are false.
Subtopic:  Enthalpy & Internal energy |
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Assertion(A): Thermodynamic properties are macroscopic in nature.
Reason(R): When a gas expands into a vacuum, the work done by it is zero. 

1. Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A.
2. Both A and R are true but R is not the correct explanation of A.
3. A is true and R is false.
4. A and R both are false.
Subtopic:  Thermodynamics' Properties and process | First Law of Thermodynamics |
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Assertion(A): Decrease in free energy causes a spontaneous reaction.
Reason(R): Spontaneous reactions are invariably exothermic reactions.

1. Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A.
2. Both A and R are true but R is not the correct explanation of A.
3. A is true and R is false.
4. A and R both are false.
Subtopic:  Spontaneity & Entropy |
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Assertion(A): Molar entropy of vaporization of water is different from ethanol.
Reason(R): Water is more polar than ethanol.

1. Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A.
2. Both A and R are true but R is not the correct explanation of A.
3. A is true and R is false.
4. A and R both are false.
Subtopic:  Thermochemistry |
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Assertion(A): \(\Delta H\) and \(\Delta E\) are almost the same for the reaction, \(N_{2(g)} + O_{2(g)} \rightleftharpoons 2NO_(g)\) 
Reason(R): All reactants and products are gases.

1. Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A.
2. Both A and R are true but R is not the correct explanation of A.
3. A is true and R is false.
4. A and R both are false.
Subtopic:  Enthalpy & Internal energy |
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Assertion(A): The increase in internal energy \((\Delta E )\) for the vapourization of one mole of water at 1 atm and 373 K is zero.
Reason(R): For all isothermal processes, \(\Delta E = 0 \).

1. Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A.
2. Both A and R are true but R is not the correct explanation of A.
3. A is true and R is false.
4. A and R both are false.
Subtopic:  Enthalpy & Internal energy |
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Assertion(A): Absolute values of the internal energy of substances cannot be determined.
Reason(R): It is impossible to determine the exact values of constituent energies of the substances.

1. Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A.
2. Both A and R are true but R is not the correct explanation of A.
3. A is true and R is false.
4. A and R both are false.
 
Subtopic:  Enthalpy & Internal energy |
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Assertion(A): Mass and volume are extensive properties.
Reason(R): Mass/volume is also an extensive parameter.

1. Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A.
2. Both A and R are true but R is not the correct explanation of A.
3. A is true and R is false.
4. A and R both are false.
Subtopic:  Thermodynamics' Properties and process |
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Assertion(A): During an adiabatic process, heat energy is not exchanged between the system and its surroundings.
Reason(R): The temperature of a gas increases when it undergoes an adiabatic expansion.

1. Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A.
2. Both A and R are true but R is not the correct explanation of A.
3. A is true and R is false.
4. A and R both are false.
Subtopic:  Thermodynamics' Properties and process |
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Assertion(A): Heat energy is completely transformed into work during the isothermal expansion of a gas.
Reason(R): During an isothermal process, the changes in the internal energy of a gas due to a decrease in pressure are nullified by the changes due to an increase in volume.

1. Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A.
2. Both A and R are true but R is not the correct explanation of A.
3. A is true and R is false.
4. A and R both are false.
Subtopic:  First Law of Thermodynamics | Enthalpy & Internal energy |
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