(a) Name the technology that has helped the scientists to propagate on large scale the desired crops in short duration. List the steps carried out to propagate the crops by the said technique.
(b) How are somatic hybrids obtained?
(a) The technology that has helped scientists in the large scale propagation of plants in short durations through tissue culture is called micro-propagation.
Any part of a plant taken out and grown in a test tube, under sterile condition in special nutrient media. This capacity to generate a whole plant from any cell/explant is called totipotency.
The nutrient medium provides a carbon source such as sucrose and inorganic salts, vitamins, amino acids and growth regulators like auxins, cytokinins.
Plants which are produced by this method are genetically identical to the original plant from which they were grown, i.e., they are somaclones.
Three food plants, tomato, banana and apple are produced commercially using this method.
(b) Isolated protoplasts from two different varieties of plants- each having a desirable character- are fused to get hybrid protoplasts, which can be further grown to form a new plant. The hybrids so obtained are called somatic hybrids.