Suggest and explain any three Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART) to an infertile couple.
Three ARTs are:
1. In vitro fertilization : Fusion of sperm and ovum is carried outside the body followed by embryo transfer in the female reproductive track. This is popularly known as test tube baby programme. This is of two types:
(a) ZIFT- Zygote intra fallopian transfer: Zygote is allowed to grow upto 8 blastomeres in the laboratory and then is transferred into the fallopian tube.
(b) IUT- Intra uterine transfer: Zygote is allowed to grow more than 8 blastomeres and then is transferred into the uterus to complete its further development.
2. In vivo fertilization: Fertilization is allowed within the female. Embryos which are formed inside the female are taken out and transferred in those females who cannot conceive.
3. GIFT- Gamete intra fallopian transfer: Ovum is collected from a donor and transferred into the fallopian tube of another female who cannot produce ovum, but can provide suitable environment for fertilization and further development of embryo.