Write any four ways used to introduce a desired DNA segment into a bacterial cell in recombinant technology experiments.
1. Desired DNA segment is inserted into cloning vector and bacterial cell can be made to take it up after making them competent by treating them with specific concentration of divalent cations such as calcium.
2.Microinjection - rDNA is directly injected into the nucleus of an animal cell.
3. Biolistics or gene gun-cells are bombarded with high velocity micro-particles of gold or tungsten coated with DNA.
4. Disarmed pathogen vectors, which when allowed to infect the cell, transfer the rDNA into the host.