(a) Taking one example each of habitat loss and fragmentation, explain how are the
two responsible for biodiversity loss.
(b) Explain two different ways of biodiversity conservation.
(a) (i) Habitat Loss: The Amazon rain-forest is being cut and cleared for cultivation of
soyabeans and for conversion into grasslands for raising beef cattle.
(ii) Fragmentation: When large-sized habitats are broken or fragmented due to human
settlements, building of roads, digging of canals etc., the population of animals requiring large territories
and some animals with migratory habitats decline. Such as mammals and birds.
(b) The scientific management and preservation of flora and fauna in its natural
form is called biodiversity conservation. There are two types of biodiversity
conservation strategies. These are:
In-situ conservation, i.e., protecting the species in their natural habitat, e.g.,
Ex-situ conservation, e.g., protecting the species in an artificially created
habitat away from its natural habitat, e.g., botanical garden and zoological parks.