(a) How is ammonia prepared on a large scale ? Name the process and mention the optimum conditions for the production of ammonia by this process.
(b) Assign reasons for the following :
(i) is more acidic than .
(ii) is more basic than .
(iii) Sulphur has a greater tendency for catenation than oxygen.
(a) According to Le Chatelier's principle the favourable conditions for the production of by Haber's process are
i) pressure of 200 atmosphere
ii) temperature of 700 K
iii) use of catalyst like with small amount of and
(b) (i) is more acidic than because bond dissociation enthalpy of H-S bond in is less than that of H-O bond in
(ii) Since both P and N contain lone pairs of electrons but due to small size and high electronegativity of Nitrogen in the electron density is much higher than , therefore it can easily donate electrons and acts as strong Lewis base than
(iii) The greater catenation tendency of sulphur is due to two reasons :
1) The lone pair of electrons feels more repulsion in O-O bond than S-S bond due to its small size and thus S-S forms strong bond.
2) As the size of atom increases down the group from O-PO, the strength of bond increases and therefore catenation tendency also increases.