(a) Draw the structures of the following :
(b) Explain the following observations :
(i) Phosphorus has a greater tendency for catenation than nitrogen.
(ii) The negative value of electron gain enthalpy is less for fluorine than that for chlorine.
(iii) Hydrogen fluoride has a much higher boiling point than hydrogen chloride.
(a) (i) :
Shape : Square planar
(b) (i) The bond strength of P-P is more than N-N, therefore phosphorus shows more tendency for catenation than nitrogen.
(ii) Because of small size of flourine atom and strong electron-electron repulsions in its compact 2p orbitals.
(iii) Hydrogen fluoride (HF) has higher boiling point than HCl due to extensive intermolecular hydrogen bonding while HCl doesn't show this H-bonding.