What are the following substances ? Give one example of each of them. (3 marks)
(i) Cationic detergents
(iii) Sweetening agents
(i) Cationic detergents : They are quaternary ammonium salts of amines with acetates,
chlorides or bromides as anions and the cationic part possess a long hydrocarbon chain, and a
positive charge on nitrogen atom. Therefore they are called cationic detergents.
Example : Cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide
(ii) Enzymes : Enzymes are biological catalysts which are chemically globular proteins having high
molecular mass and highly specific in their actions due to presence of active sites of definite
shape and size on their surfaces so that only specific substrate can fit in them.
Example : Pepsin, amylase
(iii) Sweetening agents : Those chemical substances which are sweet in taste but do not add any
calories to our body are called artificial sweetening agents. These are excreted as such through
Example : Saccharin, aspartame etc.