Explain the following terms with suitable examples : (2 marks)
(a) Cationic detergents
(b) Anionic detergents
(a) Cationic detergents : They are quaternary ammonium salts of amines with acetates,
chlorides or bromides as anions and the cationic part possess a long hydrocarbon chain, and a
positive charge on nitrogen atom. Therefore they are called cationic detergents.
Example : Cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide
(b) Anionic detergents : Those detergents in which large part of their molecules are anions and
used in cleansing action, are called anionic detergents.
Example : Sodium alkyl sulphates
These are obtained from long straight chain alcohols containing 12-18 carbon atoms by
treatment with conc. followed by neutralization with NaOH.
Example : Sodium lauryl sulphate.