The reasons behind conserving biodiversity can be group into categories which include :
A. Narrowly utilitarian B. Broadly utilitarian
C. Ethical utilitarian D. No utilitarian
(a) A, B (b) A, C (c) B, C (d) D
Narrow utilitarian: monetary gains like- medicines, wood, etc.
Ethical utilitarian: moral duty
Broad utilitarian: no direct monetary gain like- oxygen from plants.
Thus, narrow and ethical utilitarian arguments can help conserve forests indirectly.