Polyethylene glycol method is used for
(a) gene transfer without a vector
(b) biodiesel production
(c) seedless fruit production
(d) energy production from sewage
(a) Introduction of DNA into plant cells without the involvement of a biological agent and leading to stable transformation is known as direct gene transfer. There are various methods for direct gene transfer, one of which is chemical method. Certain chemicals, eg, PEG (Polyethylene Glycol), polyvinyl alcohol and calcium phosphate enhances the uptake of DNA onto the outer surface of plasmalemma and the precipitate is taken up by the endocytosis.