Q. 49 Define transgenic animals. Explain in detail any four areas where they can be utilised.

Animals that have had their DNA manipulated to possess and express an extra (foreign) gene are known as transgenic animals.

Following are the four main areas where they can be utilised

(i) To Study Normal Physiology and Development
These animals can be used to study that which factor/gene products are needed at what time of development. By the expression of certain genes, they help scientists to
understand the normal gene expression at various stages of growth and development.

(ii) Study of Diseases
Transgenic animals can be created to serve as models for various human diseases. They also help us to understand the involvement of various genes in diseases like cancer, Parkinson’ disease etc.

(iii) Vaccine Safety
Transgenic animals can be used to test vaccines like polio vaccine. Transgenic mice have shown promising results in this area and would replace the vaccine testing on monkeys in the years to come.

(iv) Chemical Safety Testing
Transgenic animals are created which are more sensitive to certain chemicals/drugs. These are used to study the toxicity or side effects of that chemical/drug. The advantage is that we get resulls faster.