Q. 40 Taking examples under each category, discuss upstream and downstream processing.

The fermentation process is the basis of many industries in order to produce diverse products. Fermentation means a process in which microorganisms that are cultured on a large scale, convert a substrate into a product which is useful to human.

The fermentation process is divided into two stages namely

Upstream and downstream processing both of these processes can be discussed taking an example of citric acid production. 

Typical activities               Typical Activities                       Typical Activities

Cell line-section,         Scale-up of seed                    Harvesting 

genetic manipulation         culture                                  lsolation 

and characterisation       Process monitoring                 Concentration

Media purification,          and control                            Purification

formulation,                   Optimisation of                       Polishing

optimisation and                culture conditions                   Formulation/

sterilisation                                                                       Packaging

The upstream processing in biotechnology involves identifying a material. This forms the initial process of fermentation. It deals with inoculum preparation, preparation of culture media, scale up of the entire process and inoculation.

When the products are subjected to a series of processes including separation and purification of the product, it is collectively known as downstream processing, It deals with the post-harvest product, i.e., recovery-clarification, purification, polishing and formulation
till the packaging of the desired product.