10. Consult the internet and find out how to make orally active protein pharmaceutical. What is the major problem to be encountered?
Orally active protein pharmaceuticals contain biologically active materials such as peptides or proteins, antibodies, and polymeric beads. It is administrated orally into the body through various formulations. It involves the encapsulation of protein or peptide in liposomes or formulations using penetration enhancers. These proteins or peptides are used for the treatment of various diseases and are also used as vaccines. However, the oral administration of these peptides or proteins has some problems related to it. Once these proteins are ingested, the proteases present in the stomach juices denature the protein. As a result, their effect will be nullified. Hence, it is necessary to protect the therapeutic protein from digestive enzymes, if taken orally. This is the reason for the proteins to be injected directly into the target site.