2. What are transgenic bacteria? Illustrate using any one example.

Transgenic bacteria contain the foreign gene that is intentionally introduced into its genome. They are manipulated to express the desirable gene for the production of various commercially important products.

An example of transgenic bacteria is E.coli. In the plasmid of E.coli, the two DNA sequences corresponding to A and B chain of human insulin are inserted, so as to produce the respective human insulin chains. Hence, after the insertion of the insulin gene into the bacterium, it becomes transgenic and starts producing chains of human insulin.

Later on, these chains are extracted from E.coli and combined to form human insulin.