The phenomenon observed in some plants wherein parts of the sexual apparatus is used for forming embryos without fertilization is called

1. parthenocarpy                   

2. apomixis

3. vegetative propagation     

4. sexual reproduction


(b) Apomixis is the phenomenon of formation of seeds without fertilisation. These embryos are genetically identical to the parental plant.
Other options are not correct because parthenocarpy and apomixis are different phenomenon. Parthenocarpy is the formation of fruits without fertilisation and hence the
fruits are seedless. e.g., banana.

(i) Vegetative propagation or reproduction is a form of asexual reproduction in plants, in which new organisms arise without production of seeds or spores.

(ii) Sexual reproduction involves formation of the male and female gametes, either by the same individual by different individuals of the opposite sex. These gametes fuse of form the zygote which develops to form the new organism.

Page 38, XII NCERT