Q5. Define the following terms:

(a) aestivation

(b) placentation

(c) actinomorphic

(d) zygomorphic

(e) superior ovary

(f) perigynous flower

(g) epipetalous stamen

 (a) Aestivation

The term ‘aestivation’ refers to the mode in which sepals or petals are arranged in a floral bud with respect to other floral members. There are four types of aestivation in plants i.e., valvate, twisted, imbricate, and vexillary.

(b) Placentation

The term ‘placentation’ refers to the arrangement of ovules within the ovary of a flower. It is primarily of five types, namely marginal, basal, parietal, axile, and free central.

(c) Actinomorphic

Actinomorphic flowers can be divided into two radial halves by any radial plane passing through its centre. Examples of these flowers include chilly and mustard.

(d) Zygomorphic

Zygomorphic flowers are those flowers which can be divided into two similar halves by a single vertical plane. Examples of these flowers include pea and beans.

(e) Superior ovary
Superior ovary flowers are those flowers in which the gynoecium is present at the highest 
position, while other floral parts are arranged below it. A flower with this arrangement is described as hypogynous. Examples include brinjal and mustard.

(f) Perigynous flower

In perigynous flowers, the gynoecium is present in the centre and the rest of the floral parts are arranged at the rim of the thalamus at the same level. Examples include plum and rose.

(g) Epipetalous Stamen

Epipetalous stamens are stamens attached to the petals. They are found in brinjal.