8.29 The chemistry of the actinoid elements is not so smooth as that of the lanthanoids. Justify this statement by giving some examples from the oxidation state of these elements.

Lanthanoids primarily show three oxidation states (+2, +3, +4). Among these oxidation states, +3 state is the most common.

Lanthanoids display a limited number of oxidation states because the energy difference between 4f, 5d, and 6s orbitals is quite large. On the other hand, the energy difference between 5f, 6d, and 7s orbitals is very less.

Hence, actinoids display a large number of oxidation states. For example, uranium and plutonium display +3, +4, +5, and +6 oxidation states while neptunium displays +3, +4, +5, and +7.

The most common oxidation state in the case of actinoids is also +3.