Question 13.10:-

Why is benzene extraordinarily stable though it contains three double bonds?

Benzene is a hybrid of resonating structures given as:

All six carbon atoms in benzene are $S{p}^{2}$ hybridized. The two $S{p}^{2}$ hybrid orbitals of each carbon atom overlap with the $S{p}^{2}$ hybrid orbitals of adjacent carbon atoms to form six sigma bonds in the hexagonal plane. The remaining $S{p}^{2}$ hybrid orbital on each carbon atom overlaps with the s-orbital of hydrogen to form six sigma C–H bonds. The remaining unhybridized p-orbital of carbon atoms has the possibility of forming three π bonds by the lateral overlap of

The six π’s are delocalized and can move freely about the six-carbon nuclei. Even after the presence of three double bonds, these delocalized π-electrons stabilize benzene.