Presence of which of the following conditions in urine is indicative of Diabetes Mellitus:

1. Uremia and Renal Calculi

2. Ketonuria and Glycosuria

3. Renal Calculi and Hyperglycaemia

4. Uremia and Ketonuria

Subtopic:  Micturition Reflex |
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Which of the following would help in prevention of diuresis?

1. Reabsorption of Na+ and water from renal tubules to aldosterone

2. Atrial natriuretic factor causes vasoconstriction

3. Decrease in secretion of renin by JG cells

4. More water reabsorption due to under secretion of ADH

Subtopic:  Autoregulation of GFR |
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The increase in osmolarity from outer to inner medullary interstitium is maintained due to :

(i) Close proximity between Henle's loop and vasa recta

(ii) Counter current mechanism

(iii) Selective secretion of HCO 3¯ and hydrogen ions in PCT

(iv) Higher blood pressure in glomerular capillaries

1. Only (ii)

2. (iii) and (iv)

3. (i), (ii), and (iii)

4. (i) and (ii)

Subtopic:  Concentration of Urine: I |
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Select the correct statement :

1. Atrial Natriuretic Factor increases the blood pressure.

2. Angiotensin II is a powerful vasodilator.

3. Counter current pattern of blood flow is not observed in vasa recta.

4. Reduction in Glomerular Filtration Rate activates JG cells to release renin. 

Subtopic:  Autoregulation of GFR |
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Which of the following factors is responsible for the formation of concentrated urine?

1.  Hydrostatic pressure during glomerular filtration.

2.  Low levels of antidiuretic hormone.

3.  Maintaining hyperosmolarity towards inner medullary interstitium in the kidneys.

4.   Secretion of erythropoietin by Juxtaglomerular complex.

Subtopic:  Concentration of Urine: I | Concentration of Urine: II | Concentration of Urine |
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Match the following parts of a nephron with their function:

(a) Descending limb of Henle's loop (i) Reabsorption of salts only
(b) Proximal convoluted tubule (ii) Reabsorption of water only
(c) Ascending limb of Henle's loop (iii) Conditional reabsorption of sodium ions
(d) Distal convoluted tubule (iv) Reabsorption of ions, water and organic nutrients

Select the correct option from the following:

1. (a)-(i), (b)-(iii), (c)-(ii), (d)-(iv)

2. (a)-(ii), (b)-(iv), (c)-(i), (d)-(iii)

3. (a)-(i), (b)-(iv), (c)-(ii), (d)-(iii)

4. (a)-(iv), (b)-(i),(c)-(iii), (d)-(ii)

Subtopic:  Nephron Part 1 | Nephron Part 2 |
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Match the items in Column - I with those in Column - II :

     Column - I            Column - II

(a) Podocytes            (i) Crystallised oxalate

(b) Protonephridia     (ii) Annelids

(c) Nephridia             (iii) Amphioxus

(d) Renal calculi         (iv) Filtration slits

Select the correct option from the following:

1. (a)-(iii), (b )-(iv), (c)-(ii), (d)-(i)

2. (a)-(iii), (b)-(ii), (c)-(iv), (d)-(i)

3. (a)-(iv), (b)-(iii), (c)-(ii), (d)-(i)

4. (a)-(iv), (b)-(ii), (c)-(iii), (d)-(i)

Subtopic:  Nitrogenous Excretory Products | Human Kidney: Location & Cut Section |
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Match the items given in Column I with those in Column II and select the correct option given below: 

Column I Column II
a. Glycosuria i. Accumulation of uric acid in joints
b. Gout ii. Mass of crystallized salts within the kidney
c. Renal calculi iii. Inflammation in glomeruli
d. Glomerulonephritis iv. Presence of glucose in urine

Options:

a b c d
1. iii ii iv i
2. i ii iii iv
3. ii iii i iv
4. iv i ii iii

Subtopic:  Disorders of Excretory System |
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Match the items given in Column I with those Column II and select the correct option given below: 
Column I                                  Column II 
(Function)                                (Part of Excretory System) 
a. Ultra filtration                       i. Henle's loop 
b. Concentration of urine          ii. Ureter 
c. Transport of urine                 iii. Urinary bladder 
d. Storage of urine                   iv. Malpighian corpuscle 
                                                 v. Proximal convoluted tubule

1. a-iv b-v c-ii d-iii

2. a-iv b-i c-ii d-iii

3. a-v b-iv c-i d-ii

4. a-v b-iv c-i d-iii

Subtopic:  Formation of Urine: Ultrafiltration 1 | Formation of Urine | Formation of Urine: Ultrafiltration |
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A decrease in blood pressure/volume will not cause the release of

1. Atrial natriuretic factor

2. Aldosterone

3. ADH

4. Renin

Subtopic:  Autoregulation of GFR |
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