Human urine is usually acidic because

1. hydrogen ions are actively secreted into the filtrate.
2. the sodium transporter exchanges one hydrogen ion for each sodium ion, in peritubular capillaries.
3. excreted plasma proteins are acidic
4. Potassium and sodium exchange generates acidity

Subtopic:  Formation of Urine |
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Removal of proximal convoluted tubule from the nephron will result in
1. more diluted urine
2. more concentrated urine
3. no change in quality and quantity of urine
4. no urine formation

Subtopic:  Nephron Part 1 | Formation of Urine |
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Which of the following does not favour the formation of large quantities of dilute urine?
1. Alcohol
2. Caffeine
3. Renin
4. Atrial-natriuretic factor

 

Subtopic:  Autoregulation of GFR |
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Which of the following causes an increase in sodium reabsorption in distal convoluted tubule?

1. Increase in aldosterone levels

2. Increase in antidiuretic hormone levels

3. Decrease in aldosterone levels

4. Decrease in antidiuretic hormone levels

Subtopic:  Autoregulation of GFR |
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Figure shows human urinary system with structures labelled A to D. Select option which correctly identifies them and gives their characteristics and / or functions. 
    

1. B-pelvis - broad funnel shaped space inner to hilum, directly connected to loops of Henle.

2. C- Medulla- inner zone of kidney and contains complex nephrons.

3. D- Cortex- outer part of kidney and does not contain any part of nephrons.

4. A- Adrenal gland- located at the anterior part of kidney; secretes catecholamines which stimulate glycogen breakdown.

Subtopic:  Human Kidney: Functions |
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The maximum amount of electrolytes and water (70-80%) from the glomerular filtrate is reabsorbed in which part of the nephron?
1. Ascending limb of loop of Henle
2. Distal convoluted tubule
3. Proximal convoluted tubule
4. Descending limb of loop of Henle

Subtopic:  Formation of Urine |
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A fall in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) activates -
1.  Adrenal cortex to release aldosterone
2.  Adrenal medulla to release adrenaline
3.  Posterior pituitary to release vasopressin
4.  Juxta glomerular cells to release renin

Subtopic:  Autoregulation of GFR |
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Which one of the following option gives the correct categorization of six animals according to the type of nitrogenous wastes (A, B, C) they give out?

  A
AMMONOTELIC
B
UREOTELIC
C
URICOTELIC
1.

Frog,

Lizards

Aquatic Amphibia,

Humans

Cockroach,

Pigeon

2.

Aquatic

Amphibia

Frog, humans

Pigeon,

Lizards,

Cockroach

3.

Aquatic

Amphibia

Cockroach,

Humans

Frog,

Pigeon,

Lizards

4.

Pigeon,

Humans

Aquatic Amphibia,

Lizards

Cockroach,

Frog

Subtopic:  Nitrogenous Excretory Products |
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Which one of the following characteristics is common both in humans and adult
frogs ?
1.  Internal fertilization
2.  Nucleated RBCs
3.  Ureotelic mode of excretion
4.  Four – chambered heart

Subtopic:  Nitrogenous Excretory Products |
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Which one of the following correctly explains the function of a specific part of a human nephron?

1.  Henle’s loop – most reabsorption of the major substances from the glomerular filtrate

2.  Distal convoluted tubule – reabsorption of ions into the surrounding blood capillaries

3.  Afferent arteriole – carries the blood away from the glomerulus towards renal vein

4.  Podocytes - create minute spaces (slit pores) for the filtration of blood into the Bowman’s capsule

Subtopic:  Nephron Part 1 | Nephron Part 2 |
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