NEET Botany Biological Classification Questions Solved


In five kingdom classification, which single kingdom contains blue-green algae, nitrogen fixing bacteria and methanogenic archaebacteria

(1) Monera

(2) Protista

(3) Plantae

(4) Fungi

The five kingdom system proposedby R.H. Whittaker (1969).

The five kingdoms are: Monere, Protista, Fungi, Plantae, Animalia.

According to this:-

Monera contains:- All Unicellular prokaryotic organisms (Autotrophic & Heterotrophic), Monera includes all types of bacteria - blue green algae (cyanobacteria), nitrogen fixing bacteria, methanogenic archebacteria.

Protista contains:- Unicellur eukaryotic organisms.

Plantae contains:- All eukaryotic chlorophyll containing organisms (algae, bryophytes, pteridophytes, gymnosperms, angiosperms)

Fungi contains:- All fungi (achlorophyllous, eukaryotic, heterotrophic,spore producing, thalloid body).

 

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In five-kingdom classification, unicellular green algae are included in the kingdom

(1) Metaphyta

(2) Protista

(3) Monera

(4) Metazoa

Audio Explanation:


According to NCERT Book (Chapter: Biological Classification, Page No. 18), Chlamydomonas & Chlorella (Examples of Unicellular green algae) are in Kingdom Protista as both are unicellular and eukaryotic. 

Please note that Blue Green Algae(Cyanobacteria) is in Kingdom Monera. (prokaryotic)

Multicellular algae are in Kingdom Plantae(Metaphyta). 

So, Algae are present in three kingdoms in 5 kingdom classification. 

 

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Fungi usually store the reserve food material in the form of

(1) Starch 

(2) Glycogen and oil

(3) Lipid

(4) Protein

Audio Explanation:


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In the five kingdoms, which single kingdom contains blue-green algae, nitrogen fixing bacteria, and methanogenic archaebacteria?

(1) Monera

(2) Protista

(3) Plantae

(4) Fungi

Audio Explanation:


(1) Blue green bacteria [cynobacteria] are prokaryotes, lack membrane bound organelles, cell wall of peptidoglycan and can fix atomopheric nitrogen. They are, thus, included in Kingdom Monera.

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Consider the following regarding the reasons for the fact that now Cyanobacteria are kept in Monera and not in Plantae:

I. They are prokaryotes.

II. The cell wall of cyanobacteria has peptidoglycan.

III. They can fix atomspheric nitrogen

The correct explanations would be:

(1) I and II only

(2) I and III only

(3) II and III only

(4) I, II and III

Audio Explanation:


(4) The only confusion can be choice III. Only prokaryotes can fix atmospheric nitrogen.

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Which of the following are valid pointers to the demerits of the two kingdom classification proposed by Linnaeus?

I. Euglena has features both of plants and animals.

II. Chlamydomanas is autotrophic but has flagella.

III. Slime molds resemble animals in one phase of their life cycle and plants in the other phase.

(1) I and II only

(2) I and III only

(3) II and III only

(4) I, II and III

Audio Explanation:


(4) Certain organisms like slime molds and Euglena have characters similar to plants and animals. Slime molds are tiny plants without cell walls whereas Euglena is minute animals with green pigment system. Their position in the living world was, hence, uncertain.

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Identify the group that is not matched correctly to all the characters shown

 

Group

Cell type

Cell wall

Nuclear membrane  

Body organization

(1) 

Monera

Prokaryotic  

Absent

Absent

Cellular

(2)

Protista  

Eukaryotic

Present in some  

Present

Cellular

(3)

Fungi

Eukaryotic

Present

Present

Multicellular/loose tissue

(4)

Plantae

Eukaryotic

Present

Present

Tissue/organ

(1) Cell wall is present in Monera which is non-cellular [Polysaccharide + Amino acid]

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Math Column I with Column II and choose your answer from the codes given:

 

Column I (Bacterium)

 

Column II (shape)

I.

Escherechia coli

1.

Spherical

II. 

Streptococcus pyogenes   

2. 

Helically coiled

III. 

Treponema pallidum

3.

Rod shaped

 

I  

II

III

(1)

1    

2    

3

(2)

3

1

2

(3)

3

2

1

(4)  

1

3

2

(2) Treponema pallidum is a spirochaete.

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Identify the incorrect statement regarding bacteria:

(1) Bacteria are the most abundant micro-organisms.

(2) Bacteria also live in exterme habitats where very few other life forms can survive.

(3) Bacteria as a group show the most extensive metabolic diversity.

(4) They are obligate intracellular parasites.

 

(4) Viruses are actually obligate intracellular parasites.

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Consider the following statements regarding characters of Archaebacteria that they share with eukaryotes:

I. The cell wall does not contain peptidoglycan.

II. DNA associated with histones.

III. Translation initiated with formylated methionine.

IV. RNA polymerase similar to eukaryotic RNA polymerase II

V. ATPase similarity

VI. Similar DNA replication and repair

How many of the above characters Archaebacteria share with eukaryotes?

(1) 3

(2) 4

(3) 5

(4) 6

(3) Formylated methionine is used in prokaryotes. Despite this visual similarity to bacteria, archaea posses genes and several metabolic pathways that are more closely-related to those of eukaryotes, notably the enzymes involved in transcription and translation. The energy released generated adenosine triphosphate (ATP) through chemiosmosis, in the same basic process that happen in the mitochondrion of eukaryotic cells. The chromosomes replicate from multiple starting-points (origins of replication) using DNA polymerases that resemble the equivalent eukaryotic enzymes.

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