Presence of which of the following conditions in urine is indicative of Diabetes Mellitus:

1. Uremia and Renal Calculi

2. Ketonuria and Glycosuria

3. Renal Calculi and Hyperglycaemia

4. Uremia and Ketonuria

Subtopic:  Micturition Reflex |
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Which of the following would help in prevention of diuresis?

1. Reabsorption of Na+ and water from renal tubules to aldosterone

2. Atrial natriuretic factor causes vasoconstriction

3. Decrease in secretion of renin by JG cells

4. More water reabsorption due to under secretion of ADH

Subtopic:  Autoregulation of GFR |
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The increase in osmolarity from outer to inner medullary interstitium is maintained due to :

(i) Close proximity between Henle's loop and vasa recta

(ii) Counter current mechanism

(iii) Selective secretion of HCO 3¯ and hydrogen ions in PCT

(iv) Higher blood pressure in glomerular capillaries

1. Only (ii)

2. (iii) and (iv)

3. (i), (ii), and (iii)

4. (i) and (ii)

Subtopic:  Concentration of Urine: I |
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Select the correct statement :

1. Atrial Natriuretic Factor increases the blood pressure.

2. Angiotensin II is a powerful vasodilator.

3. Counter current pattern of blood flow is not observed in vasa recta.

4. Reduction in Glomerular Filtration Rate activates JG cells to release renin. 

Subtopic:  Autoregulation of GFR |
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Which of the following factors is responsible for the formation of concentrated urine?

1.  Hydrostatic pressure during glomerular filtration.

2.  Low levels of antidiuretic hormone.

3.  Maintaining hyperosmolarity towards inner medullary interstitium in the kidneys.

4.   Secretion of erythropoietin by Juxtaglomerular complex.

Subtopic:  Concentration of Urine: I | Concentration of Urine: II | Concentration of Urine |
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Use of an artificial kidney during hemodialysis may result in:

(a) Nitrogenous waste build-up in the body

(b) Non-elimination of excess potassium ions

(c) Reduced absorption of calcium ions from gastro-intestinal tract

(d) Reduced RBC production

Which of the following options is the most appropriate ?

1. (a) and (d) are correct

2. (a) and (b) are correct

3. (b) and (c) are correct

4. (c) and (d) are correct

Subtopic:  CRF & Hemodialysis |
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Match the following parts of a nephron with their function:

(a) Descending limb of Henle's loop (i) Reabsorption of salts only
(b) Proximal convoluted tubule (ii) Reabsorption of water only
(c) Ascending limb of Henle's loop (iii) Conditional reabsorption of sodium ions
(d) Distal convoluted tubule (iv) Reabsorption of ions, water and organic nutrients

Select the correct option from the following:

1. (a)-(i), (b)-(iii), (c)-(ii), (d)-(iv)

2. (a)-(ii), (b)-(iv), (c)-(i), (d)-(iii)

3. (a)-(i), (b)-(iv), (c)-(ii), (d)-(iii)

4. (a)-(iv), (b)-(i),(c)-(iii), (d)-(ii)

Subtopic:  Nephron Part 1 | Nephron Part 2 |
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Match the items in Column - I with those in Column - II :

     Column - I            Column - II

(a) Podocytes            (i) Crystallised oxalate

(b) Protonephridia     (ii) Annelids

(c) Nephridia             (iii) Amphioxus

(d) Renal calculi         (iv) Filtration slits

Select the correct option from the following:

1. (a)-(iii), (b )-(iv), (c)-(ii), (d)-(i)

2. (a)-(iii), (b)-(ii), (c)-(iv), (d)-(i)

3. (a)-(iv), (b)-(iii), (c)-(ii), (d)-(i)

4. (a)-(iv), (b)-(ii), (c)-(iii), (d)-(i)

Subtopic:  Nitrogenous Excretory Products | Human Kidney: Location & Cut Section |
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Nitrogenous waste is excreted in the form of pellet or paste by:
1. Pavo
2. Ornithorhynchus
3. Salamandra
4. Hippocampus
Subtopic:  Nitrogenous Excretory Products |
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Which one of the following hormones reduces the blood pressure?
1. Antidiuretic hormone 
2. Atrial Natriuretic factor 
3. Aldosterone 
4. Angiotensin-II

Subtopic:  Autoregulation of GFR |
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