For a transistor, in a common emitter arrangement, the alternating current gain $\mathrm{\beta }$ is given by

(a) $\mathrm{\beta }={\left(\frac{∆{\mathrm{I}}_{\mathrm{c}}}{∆{\mathrm{I}}_{\mathrm{B}}}\right)}_{{\mathrm{V}}_{\mathrm{C}}}$                       (b) $\mathrm{\beta }={\left(\frac{∆{\mathrm{I}}_{B}}{∆{\mathrm{I}}_{C}}\right)}_{{\mathrm{V}}_{\mathrm{C}}}$

(c) $\mathrm{\beta }={\left(\frac{∆{\mathrm{I}}_{\mathrm{c}}}{∆{\mathrm{I}}_{E}}\right)}_{{\mathrm{V}}_{\mathrm{C}}}$                       (d) $\mathrm{\beta }={\left(\frac{∆{\mathrm{I}}_{E}}{∆{\mathrm{I}}_{C}}\right)}_{{\mathrm{V}}_{\mathrm{C}}}$

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