At which step, glycolysis reaches the break-even point: 2
molecules of ATP consumed, and 2 new molecules synthesized?
1. Splitting of fructose-6-phosphate into two trioses
2. Conversion of 1,3 bi-phosphoglycerate to 3 phosphoglycerate
3. Conversion of GADP to 1,3 biphosphoglycerate
4. Conversion of DHAP to GADP
Under which condition would you expect the mitochondrial proton gradient to be highest and therefore ATP synthesis to proceed?
1. pyruvate (present)-oxygen (present)-ATP levels (high)
2. pyruvate (present)-oxygen (present)-ATP levels (low)
3. pyruvate (present)-oxygen (absent)-ATP levels (high)
4. pyruvate (absent)-oxygen (present)-ATP levels (low)
Plants can get along without respiratory organs because of the following except:
|1.||Each plant part takes care of its own gas exchange needs|
|2.||Plants do not present great demands for gas exchange.|
|3.||Gas diffusion in plants occurs easily over long distances in plants.|
|4.||Each living cell in a plant is located quite close to the surface of the plant.|
Sucrose is converted into glucose and fructose by the enzyme:
The co-factor required for the activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase is:
In the mitochondrial electron transport system, the term Complex III refers to:
1. NADH dehydrogenase
2. Cytochrome c
4. Cytochrome bc1 complex
For each ATP produced, how many H passes through F0 from the intermembrane space to the matrix down the electrochemical proton gradient?
If fatty acids were to be respired, they would first be degraded to:
1. Glucose-6 phosphate
4. Alpha ketoglutarate
In the absence of oxygen, the primary purpose of fermentation is to:
1. produce amino acids for protein synthesis
2. generate a proton gradient for ATP synthesis
3. oxidize glucose to generate reduce electron carriers
4. regenerate NAD+ from NADH allowing glycolysis to continue
During glycolysis, when glucose is catabolized to pyruvate, most of the energy of glucose is
1. transferred to ADP, forming ATP.
2. transferred directly to ATP.
3. retained in the pyruvate.
4. stored in the NADH produced.