Select the correct match of the digested products in humans given in column I with their absorption site and mechanism in column II.
Column I Column II
(a) Glycine and glucose Small intestine and active absorption
(b) Fructose and Na+ Small intestine passive absorption
(c) Glycerol and fatty acids Duodenum and move as chilomicrons
(d) Cholesterol and maltose Large intestine and active absorption
(a) Amino acids, monosaccharides like glucose, electrolytes like Na+ are absorbed into the blood by active transport. Fructose and some amino acids are absorbed with the help of the carrier ions like Na+ by facilitated transport.
Epithelial cells of the intestine involved in food absorption have on their surface
(a) pinocytic vesicles
(b) phagocytic vesicles
(c) zymogen granules
(d) The mucosa and sub-mucosa of small intestine are thrown into folds. Surfaces of these folds is covered by fine, finger-like projections of the epithelium.
These projections are called villi. In addition, the epithelial cells of the villi are covered on their exposed surface by cytoplasmic projections called microvilli.
A young infant may be feeding entirely on mother's milk, which is white in colour but the stools, which the infant passes out is quite yellowish. What is this yellow colour due to ?
(a) Intestinal juice
(b) Bile pigments passed through bile juice
(c) Undigested milk protein casein
(d) Pancreatic juice poured into duodenum
(b) The stools, which the infant passes out is quite yellowish due to the bile pigments. These bile pigments are released in the bile juice.
A dental disease characterised by moltting of teeth is due to the presence of a certain chemical element in drinking water. Which of the following is that element?
(c) Increased amount of fluorine in drinking water causes fluorosis, responsible for motling of teeth.
Anxiety and eating spicy food together in an otherwise normal human, may lead to
(a) Unhealthy eating habits together with anxiety, stress or panic attacks may cause indigestion, stomach ache, stomach palpitations, nausea etc.
Two friends are eating together on a dining table. One of them suddenly starts coughing while swallowing some food. This coughing would have been due to improper movement of
(a) The epiglottis is a flap that is made of elastic cartilage tissue covered with a mucous membrane,
attached to the entrance of the larynx. It prevents the entry of food into the larynx, and directs it to the oesophagus. Due to the improper movement of epiglottis, one may suddenly start coughing while swallowing some food.
Which one of the following is a protein deficiency disease?
(d) Night blindness
(c) Kwashiorkor is a protein deficiency disease (no calorie deficiency but structural). Its common symptoms are wasting of muscles, thinning of limbs, failure of growth and brain development and diarrhoea.
In frog, the surface of attachment of tongue is
(d) hyoid apparatus
(d) Main part of hyoid apparatus is a broad, flat and squarish plate, also called basilingual plate, because it provides attachment and support to the tongue.
For person suffering from high blood cholesterol, the physicians recommend
(a) pure 'deshi ghee' or butter
(b) vegetable oil such as ground nut oil
(c) red meat with layers of fats
(d) vanaspati margarine
(b) A patient of high blood cholesterol is suggested to take unsaturated fats as vegetable oils. Such as ground nut oil because high intake of saturated fat causes high blood cholesterol which ultimately gets deposited in the walls of arteries causing their blockage resulting in various cardiac-disease. Ghee, butter, red meat vanaspati, they all are rich sources of saturated fats.
Rennin acts on
(a) milk changing casein into calcium paracaseinate at 7.2 - 8.2 pH
(b) protein in stomach
(c) fat in intestine
(d) milk changing casein into calcium paracaseinate at 1-3 pH
(d) Stomach secretes gastric juice pH [1-3.5] which contains prorennin secreted by the zymogen cells. Inactive prorennin is converted into rennin by HCl. Rennin acts on casein, a protein milk changing it into calcium paracaseinate, it is known as curdling of milk.