The normal value of GFR is approximately
1. 650 ml/min
2. 180 ml/min
3. 180 ml/day
4. 125 ml/min
What is used as an osmolyte in human beings to increase medullary interstitial osmolality during concentration of urine ?
3. Both a and b
4. Uric acid
During concentration of urine by the human kidneys, NaCl is returned to the medullary interstitium by the:
1. Descending limb of the loop of Henle
2. Ascending limb of the loop of Henle
3. Descending limb of the vasa recta
4. Ascending limb of the vasa recta
Identify the correct statement regarding the excretion of acids by the human kidney :
1. The filtered bicarbonate is absorbed by anion transport
2. The intercalated cells of the distal tubule secrete hydrogen ions to reabsorb bicarbonate from the tubular fluid.
3. All of the filtered bicarbonate is normally reabsorbed in the first half of the distal tubule.
4. Urine pH is normally greater than that of plasma.
The main disadvantage of urea as an excretory product for animals eliminating it would be:
1. its high toxicity
2. Needs lot of water to be eliminated
3. It being an osmolyte
4. Energy expenditure to produce it
Match each item in Column I with one in Column II and choose the correct option from the codes given below:
A B C
1. b d f
2. a d f
3. a c e
4. b d e
Excretion of dilute urine requires
1. relative permeability of the distal tubule to water
2. transport of sodium and chloride ions out of the descending loop of Henle
3. the presence of ADH
4. impermeability of the collecting tubule to water
Which of the following statements about the kidneys is incorrect?
1. They consume over 20% of the oxygens used by the body at rest.
2. Approximately 1200ml of fluid is filtrated by the kidneys each day.
3. 120-125 ml of plasma is forced into the renal tubules each minutes.
4. They compose less than 1% of the body weight.
Describe urine in relationship to glomerular filtration tubular reabsorption and tubular secretion urine :
1. glomerular filtration + tubular reabsorption + tubular secretion
2. glomerular filtration - tubular reabsorption -tubular secretion
3. glomerular filtration + tubular reabsorption -tubular secretion
4. glomerular filtration -tubular reabsorption +tubular secretion
Atrial natriuretic hormone (ANH) will promote a(n) ________ in the excretion of sodium and water; thus ________ blood volume and blood pressure.
1. decrease, decreasing
2. decrease; increasing
3. increase, decreasing
4. increase, increasing
The part of nephron involved in active reabsorption of sodium is
1. distal convoluted tubule
2. proximal convoluted tubule
3. Bowman's capsule
4. descending limb of Henle's loop
Which of the following does not favour the formation of large quantities of dilute urine ?
4. Atrial-natriuretic factor
Which one of the following is not a part of a renal pyramid?
1. Convoluted tubules
2. Collecting ducts
3. Loops Henle
4. Peritubular capillaries
What will happen if the stretch receptors of the urinary bladder wall are totally removed?
1. There will be no micturition
2. Micturition will continue
3. Urine will continue to collect in the bladder
4. Both a and c
Angiotensinogen is a protein produced and secreted by:
1. Macula densa cells
2. Endothelial cells (cells lining the blood vessels)
3. Liver cells
4. Juxtaglomerular (JG) cells
In the presence of vasopressin, the greatest fraction of filtered water is absorbed in
1. Loop of Henle
2. Proximal convoluted tubule
3. distal convoluted tubule
4. collecting tubule
Trimethylamine oxide is an excretory product in
1. fresh water teleosts
2. marine teleosts
3. marine invertebrate
4. none of these.
Which one of the following statements is correct with respect to salt water balance inside the body of living organisms?
1. When water is not available camels do not produce urine but store urea in tissues.
2. Salmon fish excretes lot of stored salt through gill membrane when in fresh water.
3. Paramecium discharges concentrated salt solution by contractile vacuoles.
4. The body fluids of fresh water animals are generally hypotonic to surrounding water.
When kidney of a person is damaged, he/she invariably suffers fom anaemia because
1. RBCs pass through the glomerulus
2. Sufficient erythropoietin is not produced
3. haemoglobin is not synthesised sufficiently
4. Iron and viatmin B-12 are not able to bind to haemoglobin.
What is true of urea biosynthesis?
1. Uric acid is starting point
2. Urea is synthesised in lysosomes
3. Urea cycle enzymes are located inside mitochondria
4. Urea is synthesised in kidney
Assertion : In vertebrates, the liver is also referred as an accessory excretory organ.
Reason : Liver helps kidneys in the secretion of urine.
Assertion : Sharks are said to be ammonotelic animals.
Reason : Sharks can retain considerable amounts of ammonia in their blood.
Assertion : Camel can go without water for long periods.
Reason : Camels stores water in the pouches of their rumen and fat in their hump.
Assertion : The antidiuretic hormone increases the water permeability of distal convoluted tubule.
Reason : In absence of ADH, water re-absorption is considerably reduced.
Which of the following is not the primary function of protonephridia?
1.. Ionic volume regulation
2. Fluid volume regulation
If one goes from inside to outside then which of the following parts comes first?
The path of urine has which of the following part of kidney as the first organ to be encountered ( other than nephron and collecting Duct)?
1. Renal calyces
2. Medullary pyramids
Which of the following is a straight part of a nephron
1. Henle's Loop
2. Collecting Duct
3. Both A and B
Reabsorption is minimum of which of the following segments of tubule?
1. Ascending limb
4. Descending limb
The concentrated filtrate gets diluted due to
1. Passage of electrolytes to the medullary fluid
2. Passage of water to the inner side of tubules
3. Passage of both water and electrolytes to the inner side of tubule
4. Both A and B
Which of the following is not important for maintaining the increasing osmolarity in the medullary interstitium?
1. The proximity between Henle's loop and vasa recta
2. Counter current flow in two limbs of tubule
3. The differential permeability of different segments of nephron
4. Counter current flow in two limbs of Vasa recta
Angiotensin II has effects over
(1) Adrenal medulla
(2) Adrenal cortex
(3) Blood vessels
(4) Both B and C
The release of urine does not take place by
(1) Contraction of smooth muscles of the bladder
(2) Simultaneous relaxation of urethral sphincter
(3) Relaxation of smooth muscels of the bladder
(4) Both B and C
The condition of accumulation of urea in blood is termed as
Which one is the vasoconstrictor ?
The excretory structure of Amphioxus (Cephalochordate) is
1. Flame cell/Solenocyte
2. Coxal gland
3. Malpighian tubules
4. Green gland
Consider the following water conservation mechanisms
A. Nasal countercurrent mechanism
B. Dependence on metabolic water
C. Highly hypertonic urine
D. Living more on protein rich diet
The kangaroo rat living in desert can survive without drinking water because of
1. A,B & C
2. A,B &D
3. B,C &D
4. A,C &D
Select the true statement
1. In fishes kidney play a major role in ammonia excretion
2. Ammonia is 100,000 times less toxic than urea
3. Sharks retain a large amount of urea in the blood as a major osmolyte to balance the osmolarity of the body fluids
4. Most terresterial reptile excrete ammonai
Henle's loops are found in those animals which excrete hypertonic urine. One of the following does not have Henle's loop
A fail in glomerular filtrate rate (GFR) activates
1. Posterior pituitary to release vasopressin
2. Juxtra glomerular cells to release renin
3. Adrenal cortex to release aldosterone
4. Adrenal medulla to release adrenaline
Arginase enzyme will be operating at which step of the ornithine cycle ?
1. Orinithine Urea
2. Arginine Urea
3. Orinithine Citrulline
4. Citrulline Arginosuccinate
Which of the following is not a feature of cortical nephrons ?
1. These are more common, approximately 85% of nephrons
2. Their glomeruli are in outer cortex
3. Their loop of Henle extend to a short distance into the medulla
4. They are associated with vasa recta
In Omithine cycle, which of the following wastes are removed from the blood ?
1. Urea and urine
2. Ammonia and urea
3. CO2 and ammonia
4. CO2 and urea
A : Inner wall of Bowman's capsule is lined with specialized cells-podocytes having a number of projections.
R : These projections increases the surface area for absorptions
A : Kidneys are retroperitoneal in position
R : Kidneys are covered with peritoneum only on ventral surface
Match the following
Functions in Na+ & K+ haemostasis
Descending loop of Henle
Permeable to NaCl but impermeable to water
Ascending loop of Henle
Pemeable to water but not to salt
Reabsorbing about 90% of the important buffer from filtrate
1. a(i), b(ii), c(iii), d(iv)
2. a(i), b(iii),c(ii), d(iv)
3. a(iv), b(iii), c(ii), d(i)
4. a(ii), b(iii), c(i),d(iv)