Transfer of genetic material from one bacterium to another through transformation, transduction or conjugation is also referred to as
1. Horizontal gene transfer
2. Vertical gene transfer
3. Chromosome walking
4. Chromosome jumping
Which would not be considered under the purview of modern molecular biotechnology?
1. In vitro fertilization
3. Shotgun technique
4. Leavening of dough
Type II restriction endonucleases may or may not leave behind sticky ends. In order to add, sticky ends to DNA strands the enzymes used are
4. Terminal Transferases
Which of the following is used as a vector for gene transfer in higher organisms?
2. Ti Plasmid
4. More than one is correct
Genetic engineering cannot be defined as
1. Hybridization of DNA from different sources
2. Alteration of genotype and phenotype of organisms.
3. Engineering and optimizing culture conditions for cells
4. Transformation of organisms by the introduction of genes.
In a sparged stirred tank bioreactor a distinct advantage over the simple bioreactor is
1. The building of pressure by gas entrainment
2. Increase in oxygen transfer area considerably due to formation of bubbles.
3. Extra sampling ports for better monitoring of the progress of reaction
4. A foam control system
A polymerase from a thermophilic bacterium is used in the process of
1. DNA Isolation
2. DNA amplification
3. DNA Separation
4. DNA Fragmentation
A transgenic plant is one which has been
1. Regenerated from transformed cells
2. Grown from somatic hybrid
3. regenerated from somatic embryo
4. Obtained from a dihybrid cross
cDNA is obtained from RNA with the help of
1. DNA polymerase
2. RNA polymerase
4. Reverse transcriptase
What is not essential for obtaining a recombinant DNA?
1. Restriction enzyme
2. DNA ligase
4. Host cell
In Agarose Gel electrophoresis the DNA fragments are separated on the basis of
3. length of restriction site
4. All of the above
The most indispensable feature to look for in a vector is
1. Selectable marker genes
2. Cloning sites
3. Integration genes
Which enzyme can establish a phosphodiester bond between the 3' OH of sugar at the end of a DNA molecule with the 5'OH of the sugar of another DNA?
1. DNA Polymerase
2. Taq Polymerase
3. DNA Ligase
4. All of the above
Mark the correct statement with reference to restriction enzymes.
1. All bacteria make restriction enzymes
2. Only bacteria make restriction enzymes
3. The restriction site of a restriction enzyme found in a bacterium is either not present in its own DNA or is protected by methylation.
4. All of the above.
We can use antibiotic-resistant genes to select out
1. Transformants from non-transformants
2. Recombinants from non-recombinants
3. Vectors from rDNA
4. Both 1 and 2
Which is an incorrect match of the scientist and the research field in which he was awarded Nobel prize?
1. Arber -Restriction Enzyme
2. Kary Mullis- Recombinant DNA
3. Hargobind Khorana-Genetic code.
4. Sanger-DNA sequencing
If one wants to obtain a single type of recombinant protein from a microbe in very large quantities, it would be best to select for culture, one of the following-
1. Culture flasks
2. Petri dishes
3. Bioreactor with the batch type culture system
4. Bioreactor with continuous culture system
In PCR, a polymerase is used in how many of the three steps i.e. denaturation, annealing and extension?
3. All three
4. Definitely in One, sometimes in two that is formation of primers.
The expression of a gene in its heterologous host is not dependent on
1. Requirement of splicing
2. Compatible promoter
3. Compatible genetic code
4. The requirement of Post-transcriptional modifications.
Suppose in the second step of PCR the temperature is not lowered to allow annealing. What will be the effect on the overall process?
1. New DNA molecules will not be formed.
2. New DNA molecules will be formed but at a slower rate due to non-optimum temperature.
3. DNA formation will be at the same rate because the Taq Polymerase has a high-temperature optimum.
4. New DNA molecules will be formed at a higher rate as Taq Polymerase works even better at high temperatures.
A pathogen which has the ability to carry genes of interest to the host cells can be modified to be used as a vector of gene delivery after subjecting it to
4. Both a and b
Mark the incorrect statement.
1. Insertional inactivation of Chromogenic marker genes is preferred over that of antibiotic-resistant genes for selection of recombinants.
2. It is essential to treat the bacterial cells with cellulases, pectinases, and proteases to isolate DNA from them.
3. Subjecting the host cells to divalent cations, heat shock or electric shocks facilitates the uptake of DNA by them.
4. DNA fragments on ethidium bromide-stained gel cannot be visualized in the radiation of wavelength greater than 400nm.
The vector PBR 322 was cleaved using the enzyme Pvu Il and a gene of interest was ligated to it for the purpose of cloning. The recombinant plasmid was incubated with host cells pretreated with Calcium Chloride. What will be observed once the host cells are transformed?
1. The gene will be cloned as the rDNA replicates
2. The product of the gene will be formed.
3. The gene will be cloned as well as expressed.
4. The gene will not be cloned but may be expressed if expression signals are added.
The element which may be unnecessary in an expression vector, is
2. Translation initiation sequence
3. RNA polymerase.
4. Start and stop codons.
If a vector has multiple cloning sites for a restriction enzyme, what will be true-
(1) The desired gene will be more effectively ligated.
(2) The cloning process will be more efficient due to ligation at multiple locations.
(3) The vector will be cleaved into various fragments which are not likely to join back to have the original components.
(4)The fragmented vector will most definitely not ligate with desired gene.