The hormone mainly responsible for the development and maintenance of female secondary sexual characteristics is
(4) luteinizing hormone
ALL of the following are functions of estrogens EXCEPT
1. help control fluid and electrolyte balance
2. promote protein anabolism
3. help regulate secretion of FSH
4. raise blood cholesterol
During the menstrual cycle, the endometrium would be at its thickest
1. during the menstrual phase
2. just prior to ovulation
3. just after ovulation
4. late in the postovulatory phase
The hormones mainly responsible for maintaining the uterine wall during the last 5-6 months of pregnancy are
1. FSH and LH
2. human chorionic gonadotropin
3. placental lactogen
4. placental estrogen and progesterone
Women athletes sometimes experience disturbances in their menstrual cycles because of
(1) increased secretion of adrenal androgens
(2) decreased secretion of adrenal androgens
(3) increased synthesis of GnRH
(4) decreased synthesis of GnRH
The glycoprotein layer between the oocyte and the granulosa cells of an ovarian follicle is called the
1. theca interna.
2. theca externa
4. zona pellucida
The first meiotic division in oogenesis occurs
1. before ovulation
2. only if the egg is fertilized
3. after ovulation
4. monthly after puberty in response to FSH and LH.
A function of FSH in the male is to
1. inhibit progesterone.
2. initiate testosterone production.
3. increase protein synthesis
4. initiate spermatogenesis
Final maturation of sperm cells occurs in the
2. seminiferous tubules
3. prostate gland
The cause of menses in the menstrual cycle is
(1) increased progesterone production from the ovary, which produces blood clotting.
(2) increased estrogen secretion from the ovary, which stimulates the muscles of the uterus to contract.
(3) decreased progesterone and estrogen secretion by the ovary.
(4) decreased production of oxytocin, causing the muscles of the uterus to relax.
After fertilization, development of a full-term fetus depends upon
(1) Release of HCG by the trophoblast to maintain the corpus luteum.
(2) Production of LH by the placenta.
(3) Maintenance of the corpus Albicans by prolactin
(4) Production of estrogen by the adenohypophysis
Basal body temperature should be highest during which phase of the uterine cycle?
1. secretory phase
2. proliferative phase
4. myometrial phase
Which of the following occurs during the ovarian cycle?
(1) The tertiary follicle is opened at the time of ovulation, shedding the secondary
oocyte and corona radiata.
(2) The corpus luteum secretes high levels of estrogen in order to prepare the uterus for implantation of a fertilized egg.
(3) The oocyte in the primary follicle selected to complete maturation
progresses through meiosis II before ovuation.
(4) The ovary that will undergo ovulation shrinks because its energetic resources are being expended on a selected oocyte.
Which of the following components of the female reproductive system is lined with ciliated columnar epithelial cells?
(2) Uterine tube
Which of the following statements about semen is FALSE?
(1) Semen contains enzymes such as fibrinolysin, which is used to form a clot in the woman's cervix after the sperm have passed into the uterus.
(2) A typical ejaculation will release 2–5 mL of sperm.
(3) Men releasing fewer than 20 million spermatozoa per milliliter are considered functionally infertile.
(4) The normal sperm count ranges from 20 million to 100 million spermatozoa per milliter of sperm.
Sperm are moved along the ductus deferens by
(1) Hydrostatic force
(2) Ciliary action
(4) Peristaltic contraction
Among these contraception methods, which has the highest risk of accidental
(2) Coitus interruptus
(4) Rhythm method
(1) Reduces the incidence of ovulation.
(2) Prevents fertilization by preventing sperm from entering the uterus.
(3) Prevents implantation of an embryo.
(4) Prevents oocytes from entering the uterus.
So-called "combination" birth-control pills function in contraception by
(1) Inhibiting the release of GnRH, FSH, and LH.
(2) Irritating the uterine lining so as to prevent implantation.
(3) Causing spontaneous abortions.
(4) Blocking progesterone receptors, so that pregnancy cannot be maintained.
Human fertility drugs increase the chance of multiple births, probably because they
(1) Enhance implantation.
(2) Stimulate follicle development.
(3) Mimic progesterone.
(4) Stimulate spermatogenesis.