Which lymphatic areas are most commonly the site of inflammation?
(1) Peyer's patches
(2) palatine tonsils
(3) lingual tonsils
The portion of a tooth which lies within the mandible socket is called the _____.
Which part of a tooth most closely resembles bone tissue?
The _____ part of the stomach is the area the is connected to the esophagus.
Parasympathetic stomach impulses cause all of the following except which one?
(1) secretion of somatostatin
(2) inhibition of somatostatin
(3) secretion of gastrin
(4) promotes histamine
Gastrin secretion will stop when the stomach pH reaches _____.
What blocks pancreatic secretions from entering the duodenum?
(1) pyloric valve
(2) sphincter of oddi
(3) the common bile duct
(4) cholecystokinin secretion
Proteins are split by all of the following pancreatic factors except which one?
Pancreatitis is mainly the result of _____ activity.
The hormone which causes the pancreas to secrete an enzyme rich fluid is _____.
Which organ has the most metabolically active cells?
(4) small intestine
Which of the following vitamins is not stored in the liver?
The liver contains special blood channels termed _____.
(2) central vein
(3) hepatic cells
(4) portal veins
The Kupffer cells are phagocytic cells found in the _____.
The common bile duct is formed by the merger of the hepatic and _____ ducts.
(1) common hepatic
The ampulla of Vater is the area that joins the common bile duct to the _____ duct.
(4) common hepatic
Gallbladder stones are medically referred to as a _____ condition.
(4) cholesterol calculi
Bile salts combine with fatty acids to form complexes called _____ that facilitate absorption.
Which area has the greatest amount of enzyme activity?
The shortest section of the intestines is the _____.
Identify the incorrect statement regarding the composition of saliva in humans:
(1) The concentration of electrolytes, potassium and bicarbonate, are higher than in plasma
(2) It contains antibacterial compounds like thiocynate and immunoglobulin A
(3) Lingual lipase has a pH optimum of around 6.8 and is functional in oral cavity
(4) Water constitutes about 99.5 % of saliva
Fatty acids and glycerol are released when _____ are broken down by liver or muscle cells.
Which of the following is not readily absorbed in the small intestine?
Which of the following comparisons is NOT correct? (p. 203)
(1) caries--tooth decay
(2) gingivitis--inflammation of the gums
(3) heartburn--stomach acid in the esophagus
(4) mumps--viral infection of the sublingual glands
Which of the following hormones will cause the stomach to churn and increase secretory activity of the gastric glands? (p. 208)
Which of the following hormones is/are produced by cells of the duodenal wall? (p. 208)
(1) secretin and CCK
(2) GIP alone
(3) secretin alone
(4) CCK alone
Which of the following substances will cause the release of secretin from the duodenal wall? (p. 208)
(1) sodium hydroxide in chyme
(3) partially digested protein
(4) hydrochloric acid in chyme
Which sphincter allows chyme to enter the small intestine? (p. 206)
(1) esophageal sphincter
(2) pyloric sphincter
(3) anal sphincter
(4) ileocecal valve
Which organ will secrete sodium bicarbonate to neutralize the acidity of chyme in the small intestine? (p. 210)
The ____ is the blind end of the a scending colon. (pp. 208-209)
(2) vermiform appendix
(4) anal canal
Which of the following is NOT a function of the liver? (p. 210)
(1) converts hemoglobin from red blood cells to bile pigments that are excreted along with bile salts in bile
(2) detoxifies blood by removing poisonous substances
(3) produces urea from the breakdown of amino acids
(4) produces enzymes for digestion of food in the duodenum
Red blood cells are broken down in abnormally large amounts in ____. (p. 211)
(1) hemolytic jaundice
(2) obstructive jaundice
(3) viral hepatitis
Which of the following statements is NOT true about digestive enzymes? (pp. 212-213)
(1) Digestive enzymes are hydrolytic enzymes.
(2) Digestive enzymes are carbohydrates that have a particular shape that fits their substrate.
(3) Digestive enzymes have an optimum pH which maintains their shape.
(4) Digestive enzymes speed up a chemical reaction.
Which enzyme breaks down starch to maltose in the duodenum? (p. 213)
(1) pancreatic amylase
(4) salivary amylase
Which enzyme is missing in the small intestine if a person has lactose intolerance? (p. 212)
(1) pancreatic amylase
Which of the following comparisons is NOT correct? (p. 212)
(1) fats -- lipase
(2) starch -- salivary amylase
(3) maltose -- lactase
(4) protein -- trypsin
The quickest, most readily available source of energy for the body is ____. (p. 215)
Which of the following provides the greatest number of calories per gram? (pp. 215, 218)
Which vitamin is a part of the coenzyme NAD? (p. 219)
(1) vitamin D
(4) vitamin K
Which of the following disorders is characterized by an individual who has the habit of eating to excess and then purging by vomiting? (p. 222)
(3) anorexia nervosa
The nerve plexus that contains neurons that are primarily concerned with regulating the motility within the GI tract is the _____________ plexus.
The hydrochloric acid secreted by the parietal cells of the stomach will do all of the following except _____________.
(1) kill microbial organisms
(2) catalyze the hydrolysis of peptide bonds
(3) denature dietary proteins
(4) stimulate the activation of pepsin
A high rate of red blood cell destruction, with elevated levels of bilirubin in the blood, causes _____________________.
Which of the following enzymes will hydrolyze proteins by removing amino acids from the end of the molecules and not by hydrolyzing bonds within the molecules?
The polymers of food are broken down into their constituent monomers by ____________ reactions in the digestive tract.
Which of the following is the part of the gastrointestinal system, but not the gastrointestinal tract?
(1) buccal cavity
(3) salivary glands
(4) small intestine
Inner circular and outer longitudinal layers are characteristic of the ___________ layer of the digestive tract.
(1) lamina propria
(2) muscularis mucosa
Most of the digestive system receives its parasympathetic innervation from the _________.
(1) vagus nerve
(2) thoracic spinal nerves
(3) lumbar spinal nerves
(4) sacral spinal nerves
Regurgitation of stomach contents is normally prevented by the actions of the _________.
(1) lower esophageal sphincter
(2) sphincter of Oddi
(3) esophageal hiatus
Mucus is secreted throughout much of the GI tract by _____________.
(1) G cells
(2) enterochromaffin-like cells
(3) parietal cells
(4) goblet cells
The most important function of the stomach, and perhaps the only function that appears to be essential for life is the ______________.
(1) digestion of carbohydrates
(2) digestion of proteins
(3) absorption of monosaccharides
(4) secretion of intrinsic factor
The longest part of the small intestine is the ____________.
The term brush border refers to _______________.
(1) plicae circularis
Which of the following is a brush border enzyme?
Urine and feces get their characteristic colors from which of the following pigments?
(2) free bilirubin
(3) conjugated bilirubin
(4) bile salts
The process of ________ allows the liver to produce glucose from amino acids when there is adequate glucose in the diet.
The first hormone discovered was ___________.
The gall bladder
(1) Synthesizes bile
(2) Stores bile
(3) Is stimulated to contract by the hormone secretin
(4) Synthesizes CCK
Which of the following statements regarding digestion and absorption of carbohydrates is true?
(1) Cabohydrate digestion begins in the stomach
(2) Polsaccharides are broken down to monosaccharides by amylase
(3) Disaccharides are actively transported across the epithelium of the small intestine
(4) Final luminal digestion of carbohydrates produces monosaccharides
Which of the following statements regarding lipid digestion and absorption is true?
(1) In the absence of bile salts, no digestion of lipids would occur
(2) The products of lipid digestion are resynthesized into triglycerides in intestinal epithelial cells
(3) The products of lipid digestion diffuse into capillaries in the vicinity of the intestinal epithelium
(4) The products of lipid digestion travel in the circulatory system in the form of micelles
Which of the following statements about the transport of the absorbed products of fat digestion is true?
(1) Free fatty acids and monoglycerides are transported to the liver via the hepatic portal vein
(2) Triglycerides are transported through the lymphatics in lipoproteins called LDL
(3) Triglycerides are transported through the lymphatics as part of lipoproteins called chylomicrons
(4) Free fatty acids and monoglycerides are transported through the lymph as part of lipoproteins called chylomicrons
The emulsification of fats
(1) Results in the formation of small fat droplets
(2) Depends upon the polar structure of bile salts
(3) Results in the formation of chylomicrons
(4) Depends upon the polar structure of bile salts
Which of the following substances is transported across the intestinal epithelial cells by means of a special protein called the "intrinsic factor"?
(1) Amino acids
(4) Vitamin B-12
During swallowing, food enters the stomach by passing through the
(1) Pyloric sphincter
(2) Ileocecal sphincter
(4) Lower esophageal sphincter
Acid secretion in the stomach is carried out by the ____________ cells of the stomach glands. These cells contain an enzyme called ________________. The function of this enzyme is to catalyze the reaction between ______________ and water.
(1) Chief; acetylcholine-esterase; carbon dioxide
(2) Parietal; amylase; bicarbonate
(3) Parietal; carbonic anhydrase; carbon dioxide
(4) Mucus; carbonic anhydrase; bicarbonate
Which of the following statements concerning stomach HCl production is NOT correct?
(1) Increasing acidity in the stomach stimulates endocrine cells in the gastric epithelium to produce somatostatin that inhibits further HCl secretion
(2) HCl production increases in response to carbohydrates entering the stomach
(3) HCl secretion is inhibited when acidity increases in the small intestine
(4) Gastrin, histamine, and acetylcholine all act to increase HCl secretion
The function of the enzyme enterokinase is to
(1) Stimulate bicarbonate secretion by the pancreas
(2) Stimulate secretion of gastrin by the stomach
(3) Convert trypsinogen into trypsin
(4) Convert pepsinogen into pepsin
Which of the following pairs of digestive actions correctly describes two of the functions of the large intestine?
(1) Bicarbonate secretion and bacterial action
(2) Acid secretion and bacterial action
(3) Water reabsorption and mass movements
(4) Mixing action and intestinal hormone production
Which of the following have been implicated as the most frequent and important cause of peptic (gastri3. ulcers in humans?
(1) Increased activity of the autonomic nervous system in persons with chronic stress
(2) Infection of the stomach wall by Helicobacter pylori (a type of bacteria).
(3) Consuming high levels of dairy products and hot, spicy foods
(4) Increased production of hydrochloric acid (HCl) or gastrin by the stomach
Which of the following statements is NOT correct?
(1) Constipation is caused by decreased motility in the large intestines
(2) Diarrhea may result from decreased fluid absorption in the large intestines
(3) A high intake of dietary fiber reduces the risk of constipation because it increases distension and motility in the large intestines
(4) Bacterial diarrhea results from a bacterial toxin that blocks water channels in the cells of the large intestines
The layer of the wall of the digestive tract that contains blood vessels, small glands, and a nerve plexus is the
(1) mucosa layer
(2) submucosa layer
(3) muscularis layer
(4) serosa (adventitia layer)
The frenulum is part of the
(2) muscles of mastication
Adults normally have ______ permanent teeth; children have ______ deciduous, or primary teeth.
The center of the tooth, which is filled with blood vessels, nerves, and connective tissue, is called
The muscular layer of the stomach is different than the rest of the digestive tract because
(1) it has one layer of smooth muscle
(2) it has two layers of smooth muscle
(3) it has three layers of smooth muscle
(4) it has four layers of smooth muscle
Parietal cells in the lining of the stomach produce
(1) regulatory hormones.
(3) HCl and intrinsic factor.
Given these sphincters: 1. external anal sphincter 2. ileocecal sphincter 3. lower esophageal sphincter 4. pyloric sphincter, Arrange them in the order in which food passes through them.
(1) secretion is increased primarily by sympathetic stimulation.
(2) contains amylase, which digests cellulose.
(3) contains lysozyme, which has a weak antibacterial action.
(4) contains pepsin, which digests protein.
Gastrin secretion is stimulated by
(1) duodenal pH greater than 3.
(4) gastric inhibitory polypeptide.
Given these events: 1. protein-coated triacylglycerols enter lacteals 2. triacylglycerol coated with protein 3. fatty acids and glycerol packaged into micelles 4. bile salts emulsify fats 5. lipase digests fat, Arrange these events in the order in which they occur during fat digestion, absorption, and transport.
In which layer of the digestive system wall is most difference observed between sections of the system?
The enteric nervous system ensures change in function due to changes in:
(1) External stimuli
(2) Local Environment
(3) Central nervous system activation
(4) Hormone concentrations
Glucose is transported across the apical membrane of the enterocyte by:
Identify the incorrect statement regarding bile?
(1) Bile salts are glycocholates and taurocholates
(2) Bile is important in absorption of fat soluble substances
(3) Bile also serves as a route of excretion of bile pigments
(4) As it contains acids, it is acidic in nature
When the stomach is empty, the mucosa is thrown into folds called __________.
(1) taenia coli
(3) plicae circulares
Liver cells, or hepatocytes, receive blood from the __________.
(1) left gastric artery
(2) hepatic portal vein
(3) hepatic artery
(4) both the hepatic artery and hepatic portal vein
(1) are lymphoid nodules located in the ileum
(2) are lymph nodes located in the duodenum
(3) protect the large intestine from bacteria in the small intestine, which might pass through the ileocecal valve
(4) are lymphoid nodules located in the ileum and protect the large intestine from bacteria in the small intestine, which might pass through the ileocecal valve
The duodenum differs from the rest of the small intestine in that its submucosa contains many __________ that secrete mucus.
(2) intestinal crypts
(3) Brunner glands
(4) myenteric plexuses
Of the 1500 mL of material that enters the large intestine on a daily basis, approximately how much water in the material is reabsorbed?
(1) 200 mL
(2) 500 mL
(3) 1300 mL
(4) 1500 mL
Fat-soluble vitamins move across the intestinal mucosa by __________.
(1) facilitated diffusion
(3) active transport
(4) simple diffusion
In which blood vessel is glucose concentration likely to vary the most?
(1) abdominal artery
(2) hepatic vein, which drains the liver
(3) pulmonary veins
(4) hepatic portal vessel
Bacteria are beneficial to animal nutrition, including that of humans. Which of thefollowing is among their greatest benefits to us?
(1) production of vitamins A and C
(2) generation of gases needed for elimination
(3) absorption of organic materials
(4) production of biotin and vitamin K
Our teeth are
(1) Acrodont and homodont
(2) Homodont and polyphyodont
(3) Thecodont, diphyodont and heterodont
(4) Acrodont, homodont and polyphypdont
The dysfunction of which of the following will most adversely affect the digestion of food in humans?
(1) Gall bladder
(4) Salivary glands
Which of the following is the structural and functional unit of liver?
(1) Hepatic cells
(2) Hepatic cord
(3) Hepatic lobule
(4) Hepatic lobe
Process of digestion is accomplished by —
(1) Only mechanical process
(2) Only chemical process
(3) Neither mechanical nor chemical process
(4) Both mechanical and chemical processes
Which one of the following statements is true regarding digestion and absorption of food in humans
(1) Fructose and amino acids are absorbed through intestinal mucosa with the help of carrier ions like Na+
(2) Chylomicrons are small lipoprotein particles that are transported from intestine into blood capillaries.
(3) About 60% of starch is hydrolysed by salivary amylase in our mouth.
(4) Oxyntic cells in our stomach secrete the proenzyme pepsinogen.
Which of the following statements is false?
(1) The breakdown of most of biomacromolecules occurs in duodenum
(2) Simple substances (digested foods) are absorbed in the jejunum and ileum
(3) Very significant digestive activity occurs in large intestine
(4) Undigested and unabsorbed substances are passed on to the large intestine
Which of the following statements is incorrect?
I. Absorption of simple sugar, alcohol, some water and medicines takes place in stomach
II. Maximum water absorption occurs in small intestine
III. Small intestine is the major site of digestion and absorption of food
IV. Fatty acid and glycerol are absorbed by lacteals
V. Nothing is absorbed in mouth and large intestine
1. I, IV and V
4. I and III
The absorbed substances finally reach the tissue which utilize them for their activities. This process is called —
Succus entericus is a term used for
(1) The junction of ileum and colon
(2) Inflammation of intestine
(3) Vermiform appendix
(4) Digestive juice of intestine
An analysis of a patient's diet shows they ate 90g carbohydrate, 10g protein, and 10g fat each day. Approximately how many Calories did this patient consume in one day?
Where do certain symbiotic microorganisms normally occur in human body ?
(2) Oral lining and tongue surface
(3) Vermiform appendix and rectum
Anxiety and eating spicy food together in an otherwise normal human, may lead to
The initial step in the digestion of milk in humans is carried out by
Which of the following is NOT directly dependent on a person's adequate protein intake?
(1) Formation of enzymes
(2) Formation of glycogen stores in the liver
(3) Production of antibodies in the immune system
(4) Production of muscle tissue.
Which cells of "Crypts of Lieberkuhn" secrete antibacterial lysozyme ?
(1) Paneth cells
(2) Zymogen cells
(3) Kupffer cells
(4) Argentaffin cells
Which of following processes occurring in the stomach is autocatalysis?
(1) Low pH denaturing the proteinaceous substances in food.
(2) Low pH activating pepsinogen to pepsin.
(3) Absorption of monomeric molecules in chyme.
(4) Pepsin activating more pepsinogen molecules.
The vomiting center in the human beings is located in:
(1) Pons varolii
(2) Medulla oblongata
Amongst the enteroendocrine cells, histamine is secreted by:
(1) Enterochromaffin cells
(2) Enterochromaffin like cells
(3) I cells
(4) D cells
Marasmus is not characterized by:
(1) Inadequate energy intake in all forms, including proteins
(2) Loss of muscle mass and subcutaneous fat
(4) Occurrence increased prior to age 1 year
Sufficient calorie intake but with insufficient protein intake, edema and an enlarged liver with fatty infiltrates characterize the disorder:
(4) Anorexia nervosa
The part of the small intestine where maximum absorption takes place is lined by:
(1) Squamous epithelium
(2) Cuboidal brush bordered epithelium
(3) Columnar brush bordered epithelium
(4) Transitional epithelium
The number of lobes in the human liver is:
The majority of the iron absorbed from digested food or supplements is absorbed in the:
An investment of loose connective tissue entering the liver with the portal vessels and sheathing the larger vessels in their course through the organ is termed as:
(1) Falciform ligament
(2) Glisson’s capsule
(3) Cantlie’s line
(4) Ligamentum teres
The pancreatic acini:
(1) Produce insulin and glucagon
(2) Produce somatostatin
(3) Secrete hydrolases
(4) Store glucose and fats
Lipases can be activated by:
(2) Secretions of Brunner’s glands
The intestinal enzymes require an alkaline pH to act. This is accomplished by the secretions of all the following except:
(1) Goblet cells
(2) Brunner’s glands
(3) Parietal cells
The proteolytic enzymes of pancreatic juice act on all the following except:
Hormonal control of the secretion of digestive juices is carried out by:
(1) local hormones produced by the gastric and intestinal mucosa
(2) hypothalamic hormones
(3) hormones of the anterior pituitary gland
(4) hormones of adrenal cortex
The drug acetyl salicylic acid is quickly absorbed in:
All the following statements are correct regarding Hepatitis A except:
(1) It is an inflammation of liver caused by an RNA virus
(2) It is usually spread by eating food or drinking water contaminated with infected feces.
(3) It can cause jaundice in humans.
(4) A vaccine has not yet been made to prevent its infection.
The most common cause of diarrhea in young children is:
(1) Escherichia coli
(3) Entamoeba histolytica
(4) Salmonella typhi
The epithelium of visceral organs is called as: