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(a) What is El Nino effect? Explain how it accounts for biodiversity loss?

(b) Explain any three measures that you as an individual would take, to reduce environmental  pollution.


(a) El Nino effect: Rise in temperature leads to deleterious changes in the environment and resulting in odd climatic changes called El Nino effect. This leads to increased melting of polar ice caps as well as Himalayan snow caps. This will result in rise in sea level that can submerge many coastal areas.

The El Nino effect causes floods, droughts , environmental changes which is a great loss to biodiversity.

(b) Measures that help to reduce environmental pollution are:

      (i) Electrostatic precipitator : It can remove over 99 percent particulate matter present in the exhaust from a thermal plant.

      (ii) Scrubber: The exhaust is passed through a spray of water or lime. It can remove gases like sulphur dioxide .

    (iii) Catalytic converters: They are fitted into automobiles made of expensive metals like platinum-palladium and rhodium as catalysts for reducing  emission of poisonous gases. As the exhaust passes through these converters , unburnt hyrocarbons are converted into carbon dioxide and waters. Carbon monoxide and nitric oxide are changed to carbon dioxide and nitrogen gas.